How Do Generators Work and What Are the Operation Principles?

Generators are electro-mechanical devices that transform mechanical energy into electrical energy. They operate on the basis of Faraday’s electromagnetic induction principle.

Faraday’s Electromagnetic Induction Principle:

According to Faraday’s electromagnetic induction law, if a conductor turns inside a magnetic field an electromagnetic force (EMF) forms between the ends of the conductor. EMF is produced perpendicular to the direction of motion of the conductor.

Basic Components:

The basic components of a generator are the rotor that creates the magnetic field (the rotating part of the magnetic field) and a stator (fixed part of the magnetic field).

The rotor usually contains a magnet or electromagnet and moves the magnetic field as it turns. The stator contains the fixed magnetic field around the rotor and is usually made up of a conductive coil.

Movement of the Magnetic Field:

As the rotor turns, the magnetic field moves. This movement creates an electromotive force in the conductive coils inside the stator.

This electromotive force creates a current or potential difference between the ends of the conductive coils.

Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC) Production:

The electrical current produced can be direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC), depending on the generator design. The connection between the rotor and stator in DC generators is always in one direction, so the current produced is direct.

For AC generators, the electromotive force direction changes continually with the movement of the magnetic field and this causes the produced current to periodically change directions.

Regulation and Control:

Generators are commonly fitted with regulators to control voltage and frequency. This helps to maintain the desired electrical energy level and frequency.

Generators are used in a wide variety of applications to produce electrical energy; they come in different types such as portable generators, industrial generators and power plants. Generators work on the basis of Faraday’s electromagnetic induction principle and they transform mechanical energy into electrical energy.

How Do Diesel Generators Work?

Diesel generators are electro-mechanical devices that contain internal combustion engines. These generators use diesel fuel to transform mechanical energy into electricity.

Internal Combustion Engine:

Diesel internal combustion engines are commonly used for diesel generators. An internal combustion engine works through a combustion process involving air and fuel. The fuel mixes with the air in the cylinders and this mixture is burned inside the cylinder.

Piston Engine Structure:

Diesel generators usually have a piston structure. The pistons inside the engine transform the pressure created by fuel combustion into mechanical energy.

Generator Unit:

The engine is connected to a generator unit. This unit contains a revolving rotor that turns to create electrical energy. The rotor creates a magnetic field in the conductive coils of the stator inside the generator.

Fuel Injection System:

The fuel in diesel generators is commonly pumped from a fuel tank to the engine’s injector system. The injectors spray atomized fuel inside the cylinders.

Control and Regulation:

Diesel generators are usually fitted with a control panel and regulator. These systems enable users to maintain and control parameters such as required voltage, frequency and other parameters.

Cooling System:

Generators are fitted with cooling systems to prevent overheating of the engine. Radiators and fans are typically used to control the engine heat.

Diesel generators are used in many applications from portable models to industrial generators. They are mostly preferred for their dependability and durability as emergency situation power sources, in construction sites, in agriculture and in industrial facilities to provide electrical energy.


Working Principle of Petrol Generators:

Petrol fuel generators are machines that use internal combustion engines and electro-mechanical generator units to transform mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Internal Combustion Engine:

Petrol fuel generators generally contain a four-stroke internal combustion engine. These engines involve four basic actions as suction, compression, combustion and exhaust.

Air-Fuel Mixture:

Petrol is pumped from the fuel tank to the engine carburetor. The carburetor ensures the correct mixture of air and fuel.
Fuel is drawn into the combustion chamber and the enriched mixture is sprayed into the cylinders.


The pistons move inside the cylinders to compress the air-fuel mixture. This process of compression makes the mixture more effective and readily combustible.

Combustion and Power Creation:

This compressed mixture is ignited by the spark plug, causing an explosion that creates motion in the pistons.
The movement of the pistons turn the crank shaft to create mechanical energy.

Generator Unit:

The engine is connected to a generator unit. The generator unit contains a revolving rotor and the movement of the rotor creates an electromagnetic field inside the conductive coils in the generator stator. This magnetic field creates an electrical current based on Faraday’s electromagnetic induction principle.

Fuel Pump and Control Systems:

Petrol fuel generators generally contain a fuel tank and control systems. These systems control the generators fuel consumption and enable the engine to provide the required performance.

Cooling System:

Generators are fitted with a cooling system to ensure overheating of the engine. The engine heat is typically controlled through the use of radiators and fans.

Petrol fuel generators are commonly preferred for their portability and lighter weight to provide emergency situation electricity for camping,open-air events and supplemental energy for power outages in homes.